"Natural Healing with Herbs for a Healthier You"


Maude Grieve gives the following constituents:  “Resin, a fatty substance, volatile oil, albumen, starch, a yellow coloring matter, lignin, salts, and ferric oxide.  The root contains 10 percent of resin which is a glucoside, Turpethin, insoluble in ether, but soluble in alcohol to which it gives a brown color not removable by animal charcoal.” (19)


Christopher Hobbs has the following to say on turmeric’s chemical constituents and physiological activities:  “Turmeric contains a mixture of phenolic compounds called curcumin, and a volatile oil with turmerone and zingiberene; cineole and other monoterpenes; starch; protein; and high amounts of vitamin A and other vitamins.  The essential oil has proven stimulating effects on the gallbladder ( perhaps due to the p-tolylmehyl carbinol) and also stimulates the liver to produce more bile and regulate its viscosity.  Modern research also shows that the herb possesses anti-inflammatory and strong liver-protecting properties.” (21)


Kai Kaholokai, a Hawaiian Ayurvedic who runs the Kai Malino Wellness center gives the following major known ingredients: tumerone, zingerene, phellandrene, cineole, sabinene, borneol, and curcumin.


Mark Pederson says that turmeric “relies on its volatile oil for its actions” which include treatment of inflammations of the digestive system and reproductive system, folk remedy for hepatitis, flatulence, and spasmotidic dysmenorrhea, and “production of enzymes in the liver that metabolize toxins in the liver in a manner similar to schizandra, licorice, and milk thistle.”  It is interesting to note here that Pederson attributes these actions to the volatile oil, because most if not all of the volatile is lost in the processing of turmeric powder and in turmeric used in cooking – more on this in Section D Medical Qualities of Turmeric below.  Mark Pederson also includes a chart indicating that turmeric is very high in fat, magnesium, and silicon and high in calories, iron, manganese, niacin, potassium, selenium, and sodium.  (33)


In his book Dr. Dukes Essential Herbs, Dr. James Duke discusses “turmeric’s medicinal power” emphasizing certain constituents including the following:


·         Antioxidants including vitamins C and E, several carotenoids, curcumin, and related compounds called curcuminoids.


·         Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX 2) inhibitors, effective at blocking inflammation, especially inflammation caused by arthritis and gout.  However, unlike aspirin and certain other anti-inflammatory drugs turmeric doesn’t contain COX-1 which inhibits necessary body functions including clotting of blood.

·         Curcumin is one of the above mentioned antioxidants.  It neutralizes some cancer causing substances and acts as an anti-mutagenic stopping very early changes in cells that can turn to cancer.   Curcumin also protects the heart, is antiviral (and thus may be useful to HIV patients), and is a cell growth generator speeding up the healing of wounds.


·         Cineole which stimulates the central nervous system, is antiseptic, is expectorant, and eliminates gas.


Immediately below, I have copied and slightly formatted a complete list of chemical constituents and their biological activities as is contained in Dr. Duke’s database.  There are a total of 92 constituents in this list and most of them have known activities, which overlap with the activities of other constituents.  I include this list as a valuable resource and reference for the various constituents and activities which are known to be present in turmeric. 


I also include this long list to illustrate an important point.  There isn’t just one just a few active ingredients.  There are many known active constituents in this very complex medicinal herb.  Also, the synergistic interactions of the many constituents is not included in this long list -- but the synergistic interactions of the constituents may (probably does) greatly enhance turmeric’s value as a whole herb.


Dr. Duke's

Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) – Indian Saffron, Turmeric


1,8-CINEOLE Rhizome 30 - 720 ppm

          Allelopathic; Allergenic; Anesthetic; Anthelminthic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml; Antiallergic; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic;

Anticatarrh; Anticholinesterase; Antifatigue; Antihalitosic; Antilaryngitic; Antipharyngitic; Antirhinitic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic;

Antitussive; Candidicide; Choleretic; CNS-Stimulant; Convulsant; Counterirritant; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml; Dentifrice;

Edemagenic inj; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 1-200; Fungicide; Gram(+)icide; Gram(-)icide; Hepatotonic; Herbicide IC50=78 uM; Hypotensive;

Inflammatory inj; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide; Neurotoxic; P450-Inducer; Perfume; Pesticide; Rubefacient; Secretogogue; Sedative;

 Spasmogenic; Surfactant; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml


 2-BORNANOL Plant:

          No activity reported.



          Antileukemic ED50=2.6 ug/ml; Cytotoxic



          No activity reported.



          No activity reported.


 ALPHA-PINENE Essential Oil 5,300 ppm;

          Allelochemic; Allergenic; Antibacterial; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Coleoptophile; Expectorant; Flavor FEMA 15-150; Herbicide IC50=30 uM; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer



          ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity); Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml; Anticariogenic; Antiseptic;

FLavor FEMA 5-40; Motor-Depressant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Termiticide


AR-TURMERONE Rhizome 5,800 ppm;

          Antihemorrhagic; Antiinflammatory; Antilymphocytic; Antiophidic; Antitumor; Insectifuge; Pesticide


ARABINOSE Rhizome 10,000 ppm;

          No activity reported.


ASCORBIC-ACID Rhizome 293 ppm;

          Acidulant FEMA 6,000; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Analgesic 5-10 g day; Antiaggregant; Antiaging 2,000 mg/day 400 mg/day; Antiarthritic 1 g

day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticataract 350 mg/day 400 mg/day; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's

50-100 mg/day/orl/man; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day; Antidiabetic; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Cadmium);

Antidote (Lead); Antidote (Paraquat); Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day; Antiencephalitic; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day;

Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antiinfertility 1

g/day; Antiinflammatory; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day; Antimeasles; Antimigraine; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day; Antiobesity 1 g 3 x day;

Antiorchitic; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2 x day; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg day; Antioxidant 100 ppm; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2 x day; Antiparotitic;

Antiperiodontitic; Antipneumonic; Antipodriac; Antipoliomyelitic; Antipyretic; Antiradicular; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day

MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml; Antishingles; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day; Antitumor (Lung); Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM;

Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man; Cancer-Preventive; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day; Collagenic;

Detoxicant; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl; Fistula-Preventive; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day;

mmunostimulant; Interferonogenic; Lithogenic; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day; Pesticide; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day; Urinary-Acidulant; Vulnerary


ASH Rhizome 9,000 - 148,000 ppm

          No activity reported.


AZULENE Rhizome:

          Antiallergic; Antibacterial 500 ppm; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic; Antiseptic 6-500; Antispasmodic; Antiulcer ED50=150 (orl);

Hepatoregenerative; Pesticide



          Allergenic; Androgenic?; Antiacne; Antiaging; Antiasthmatic; Anticarcinomic; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic; Antileukoplakic; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos; Antimastitic; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant; Antiozenic; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg man/day;

Antipityriasic; AntiPMS; Antiporphyric 30-300 mg/man/day; Antipsoriac; Antiradicular; Antistress; Antitumor; Antiulcer 12 mg/3x/day/man/orl;

Antixerophthalmic; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm; Colorant; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl; Interferon-Synergist; Mucogenic; Phagocytotic;

Prooxidant 20 ug/g; Thymoprotective; Ubiquiot


BETA-PINENE Essential Oil 2,700 ppm;

          Allergenic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 15-600; Herbicide; Insectifuge; Perfumery; Pesticide; Spasmogenic



          Antirhinoviral IC50=0.44 uM; Antiulcer IC40=50 mg/kg; Expectorant; Pesticide



          No activity reported.


BIS-DESMETHOXYCURCUMIN Rhizome 67 - 27,000 ppm

          Antiangiogenic; Anticholeretic; Antiinflammatory



          No activity reported.


BORNEOL Rhizome:

          Allelochemic; Analgesic; Antiacetylcholine; Antibronchitic; Antifeedant; Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml, CNS-Stimulant; CNS-Toxic; FLavor FEMA<1; Hepatoprotective; Herbicide IC50=470 mM IC50=470 uM; Inhalant; Insect-Repellent; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative


BORON Root 1 - 6 ppm

          Androgenic 3 mg/man/day; Antiosteoarthritic; Antiosteoporotic; Estrogenic


CAFFEIC-ACID Rhizome 5 ppm;

          Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity); Allergenic; Analgesic; Antiadenoviral; Antiaggregant; Antibacterial; Anticancer;  Anticarcinogenic; Antiedemic; Antiflu; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic 25 uM; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml; Antihistaminic; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic; Antiinflammatory; Antileukotriene; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosaminic; Antiophidic; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E 1/3 quercetin 30 mM 50 um IC57=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=44 uM; Antiprostaglandin; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin 10 uM 30 mM; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM; Antistomatitic; Antisunburn; Antithiamin; Antithyroid; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Cholagogue; Choleretic; Clastogenic; CNS-Active; Co-carcinogenic; Collagen-Sparing; Cytoprotective; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml; Diuretic; DNA-Active; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol); Hepatoprotective; Hepatotropic; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM IC50=62-148 uM; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM; Metal-Chelator; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Prooxidant; Prostaglandigenic; Sedative 500 mg; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l IC91=5 mg/l IC98=25 mg/l; Tumorigenic; Vulnerary; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 um CALCIUM Rhizome 270 - 2,898 ppm Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety; Antiatherosclerotic; Antidepressant; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Lead); Antihyperkinetic; Antiinsomniac; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg day; AntiPMS 1 g day; Antitic; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg day; Hypotensive 1 g/day



          Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant; Pesticide


CARBOHYDRATES Rhizome 79,000 - 829,000 ppm

          No activity reported.



          Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml; Antiedemic; Antifeedant 500 ppm;        Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic; Antitumor; FLavor FEMA 20-200; Insectifuge; Perfumery; Pesticide; Termitifuge


     CHROMIUM Rhizome 6 ppm;

          Amphiglycemic?; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug; Antiaging; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; Anticorneotic; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead); Antiglycosuric; Antiobesity; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day 200-1,000 ug; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day 200-1,000 ug; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Insulinogenic


CINEOLE Essential Oil 29,200 ppm;

          No activity reported.



          Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity); Allergenic; Anesthetic; Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory; Antimutagenic; Antispasmodic; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 4-40; Fungicide; Herbicide; Laxative; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Vermifuge


COBALT Rhizome 1 ppm;

          Cardiomyopathogenic; Erythrocytogenic


COPPER Rhizome 6 - 17 ppm

          Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day; Antiinflammatory; Antinociceptive; Contraceptive; Hypocholesterolemic; Schizophrenigenic



          No activity reported.


CURCUMENE Essential Oil 121,700 ppm;

          No activity reported.


CURCUMENOL Essential Oil 21,300 ppm;

          Anticancer; Emetic


CURCUMIN Rhizome 9 - 38,888 ppm

          12-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Antiadenomacarcinogenic 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiaflatoxin; Antiaggregant; Antiangiogenic; Antiarachidonate; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic 0.4-20 mg/kg/day; Antibacterial; Antibronchitic; Anticancer (Breast); Anticancer

(Colon); Anticancer (Duodenum); Anticancer (Mammary) 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Anticancer (Skin); Anticataract 75 mg/kg orl rat; Anticholecystosic;

Anticolitic; AntiCrohn's; AntiEBV IC50=5.4 uM; Antieczemic; Antiedemic ED50=100.2 mg/kg orl mus (cf 78 for cortisone) ED50=48 mg/kg orl

rat (cf 45 for cortisone) ED50=48 mg/kg orl rat (cf 48 for phenylbutazone); Antihepatotic; AntiHIV IC50=40 uM; Antiinflammatory 1 uM 1,200

mg/man/day; Antiintegrase 40-150 uM; Antiischemic; Antileukemic; Antileukotriene; Antilithic 0.5% diet; Antilymphomic 0.4 mg/ml 4 ug/ml;

Antimelanomic 200 nM/kg orl mus; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA IC50=500 uM; Antiperoxidant;

Antiprostaglandin 8.8 uM; Antipsoriatic; Antispasmodic; Antithrombotic; Antithromboxane; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor-Promoter IC91=10 uM;

Antiulcer orl rat; Antiviral IC50=5.4 uM; Apoptotic 2,000 ppm (diet) orl rat; Cancer-Preventive; Cardiodepressant; Chelator IC50=500 uM Iron;

Cholagogue; Choleretic; COX-2-Inhibitor 10 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic 0.4-4 mg/ml IC50=1 ug/ml;

Deodorant; Detoxicant; Dye; Fibrinolytic; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective 30 mg/kg/day 30 ppm; Hypocholesterolemic 0.15% diet 7 wks;

Hypolipidemic; Hypotensive; Immunostimulant 40 mg/kg/5 wk orl rat; Litholytic 0.5% diet; Metal-Chelator; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor;

Pesticide; Phototoxic; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.2% diet rat; Protease-Inhibitor IC50=11-250 uM; Protein-Kinase-Inhibitor; Pulmonoprotective 200 mg/kg/7 d; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3.4 uM; Ulcerogenic orl rat


CURDIONE Essential Oil 11,900 ppm;

          Anticancer (Cervix); Antileukopenic; Antisarcomic; Antitumor; AntiX-Radiation


CURLONE Rhizome 120 ppm;

          No activity reported.



          No activity reported.


CURZERENONE-C Essential Oil 20,400 ppm;

          No activity reported.


CYCLO-ISOPRENEMYRCENE Rhizome 8,500 - 29,750 ppm

          No activity reported.


D-ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Rhizome 30 - 720 ppm

          No activity reported.


D-CAMPHENE Rhizome 480 ppm;

          No activity reported.


D-CAMPHOR Rhizome 30 - 1,500 ppm

          No activity reported.


D-SABINENE Rhizome 20 - 432 ppm

          No activity reported.



          No activity reported.


DESMETHOXYCURCUMIN Rhizome 500 - 11,100 ppm

          No activity reported.



          Cytotoxic; Hepatoprotective






          No activity reported.






          No activity reported.


EO Rhizome 3,000 - 72,000 ppm

          No activity reported.


EUGENOL Essential Oil 2,100 ppm;

          Allergenic; Analgesic; Anesthetic 200-400; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM; Antiarachidonate; Antibacterial 500 ppm; Anticonvulsant; Antiedemic 100;Antifeedant; Antiinflammatory 11 uM; Antimitotic; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosating; Antioxidant IC65=30 ppm; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM IC50=9.2

mM; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day; Antispasmodic; Antithromboxane; Antitumor; Antiulcer;

Apifuge; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg IC50=224 uM; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Carcinogenic?; Carminative; Choleretic;

CNS-Depressant; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic 25 ug/mL; Dermatitigenic; Enterorelaxant; FLavor FEMA 10-500; Fungicide;

Hepatoprotective 100 ppm; Herbicide; Insecticide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Juvabional; Larvicide; Motor-Depressant; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml;          Neurotoxic; Perfumery; Pesticide; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml; Trypsin-Enhancer; Ulcerogenic; Vermifuge


FAT Rhizome 18,000 - 153,000 ppm

          No activity reported.




FIBER Rhizome 9,000 - 84,000 ppm Antidiabetic; Antiobesity; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl; Laxative


FRUCTOSE Rhizome 120,000 ppm;

          Antialcoholic; Antidiabetic; Antihangover; Antiketotic; Antinauseant; Laxative; Neoplastic; Sweetener 2 x glucose



          No activity reported.


GLUCOSE Rhizome 280,000 ppm;

          Acetylcholinergic; Antiedemic; Antihepatotoxic; Antiketotic; Antivaricose; Hyperglycemic; Memory-Enhancer



          Anesthetic; Antibacterial 8,000 ppm; Antidermatitic; Antieczemic; Antiesophagitic; Antiseptic; Antituberculic; Cardiotonic; Expectorant 0.3-0.6 ml/man; FLavor FEMA <1-1; Insectifuge; Pesticide; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=57 uM


IRON Rhizome 121 - 467 ppm

          Antiakathisic; Antianemic; Anticheilitic; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl


ISOBORNEOL Rhizome Essent. Oil 200 ppm;

          Insectifuge; Motor-Stimulant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide; Sedative


L-ALPHA-CURCUMENE Rhizome 18,000 ppm;

          No activity reported.


L-BETA-CURCUMENE Rhizome 18,000 ppm;

          No activity reported.


LIMONENE Essential Oil 2,300 ppm;

          AChE-Inhibitor; Allelochemic; Allergenic (1/20th carene); Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM; Antialzheimeran?; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antilithic; Antimutagenic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antitumor (Prostate); Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Candidistat; Chemopreventive; Enterocontractant; Expectorant; FLavor; Fungiphilic; Fungistat; Herbicide IC50=45 uM; Insecticide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor 750 mg/kg (diet); Pesticide;          Photosensitizer; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg


LINALOL Essential Oil 1,600 ppm;

          No activity reported.


MANGANESE Rhizome 33 - 78 ppm

          Antialcoholic; Antianemic; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day; Antidiscotic; Antidyskinetic; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antiototic; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day; Hypoglycemic



          No activity reported.


NIACIN Rhizome 5 - 62 ppm

          Allergenic; Antiacrodynic; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day; Antiamblyopic; Antianginal; Antichilblain; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day; Antidermatitic; Antidysphagic;

Antiepileptic; Antihistaminic 50 mg/2x/day; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day; AntiMeniere's; Antineuralgic; Antiparkinsonian 100          mg/day; Antipellagric; Antiscotomic; Antispasmodic 100 mg/2x/day; Antivertigo; Cancer-Preventive; Hepatoprotective; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic; Sedative; Serotoninergic; Vasodilator


NICKEL Rhizome 3.8 ppm;

          Antiadrenalinic; Anticirrhotic?; Insulin-Sparing



          Antibacterial; Fungicide; Pesticide


P-COUMARIC-ACID Rhizome 345 ppm;

          Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity); Allelopathic; Antibacterial; Antifertility; Antihepatotoxic; Antioxidant IC24=30 ppm;

Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM; Antispasmodic; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic; Cytotoxic; Diaphoretic?; Fungicide; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM; Pesticide; Prostaglandigenic; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor


P-CYMENE Rhizome:

          Analgesic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM; Antibacterial; Antiflu; Antirheumatalgic; Antiviral; FLavor FEMA 12-250; Fungicide; Herbicide

          IC50=50 uM; Insectifuge; Pesticide; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml



          Antipyretic; Fungicide; Hemolytic; Hypoglycemic; Pesticide


P-TOLYMETHYLCARBINOL Rhizome 500 - 1,750 ppm



PHOSPHORUS Rhizome 640 - 6,307 ppm

          Antiosteoporotic; Immunostimulant; Osteogenic


POTASSIUM Rhizome 4,870 - 41,271 ppm

          Antiarrhythmic; Antidepressant; Antifatigue; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day


PROTEIN Rhizome 12,000 - 306,000 ppm

          No activity reported.



          Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic; Antiinflammatory; Antiischemic; Antiophidic; Antioxidant; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM; Antiradicular; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM; Antitussive; Antiviral; Fungicide 500 ug/ml; Immunostimulant; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Prostaglandigenic; Secretogogue; Ubiquiot


RESIN Rhizome:

          No activity reported.


RIBOFLAVIN Rhizome 12 ppm;

          Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/orl day; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day; Anticataract 15 mg/day; Anticheilitic; Antidecubitic; Antiglossitic; Antikeratitic;          Antimigraine; Antipellagric; Antiphotophobic; Cancer-Preventive


SODIUM Rhizome 30 - 4,290 ppm




          Antioxidant IC39=30 ppm; Ubiquiot


TERPINENE Essential Oil 27,200 ppm;

          No activity reported.


TERPINEOL Essential Oil 500 ppm;

          Antiallergenic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Antiseptic; Antitussive; Cholagogue; Expectorant; Insectifuge; Perfumery; Pesticide


THIAMIN Rhizome 8 ppm;

          Analgesic 1-4 g/day; Antialcoholic; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg day; Antianorectic; Antibackache 1-4 g day; Antiberiberi; Anticardiospasmic;          Anticolitic; Antidecubitic; Antideliriant; Antiencephalopathic; Antifatigue; Antigastritic; Antiheartburn; Antiherpetic; Antimigraine; Antimyocarditic;          Antineuralgic; Antineurasthenic; Antineuritic; Antineuropathic 50 mg; Antipoliomyelitic; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day; Pesticide


TURMERONE Rhizome 1,800 - 43,200 ppm

          Choleretic; Hepatotonic; Insectifuge; Pesticide


UKONAN-A Rhizome 33 - 6,600 ppm

          Immunostimulant; Phagocytotic 5 mg/kg ip; RES-Activator


UKONAN-B Rhizome 47 ppm;

          Phagocytotic 5 mg/kg; RES-Activator


UKONAN-C Rhizome 52 ppm;

          No activity reported.


UKONAN-D Rhizome:

          No activity reported.



          Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM/l; Anthelminthic; Antibacterial 1.5-15 mg/ml; Anticancer; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory; Antioxidant IC21=30 ppm; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antisickling; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Ascaricide; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic; Immunosuppressant; Laxative; Pesticide; Ubiquiot


WATER Rhizome 133,000 ppm;

          No activity reported.


ZINC Rhizome 22 ppm;

          Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd; Antialopecic; Antialzheimeran 50 mg day; Antianorexic; Antiarthritic? 50

mg/3x/day/orl/man; Anticanker 100 mg/day; Anticataract 30 mg/day; Anticoeliac; Anticold 50 mg; Anticolitic; Anticoronary 30 mg/day; AntiCrohn's; Antidandruff; Antidiabetic; Antidote (Cadmium); Antieczemic 150 mg/day; Antiencephalopathic; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man; Antiherpetic? 25 mg/day; Antiimpotence; Antiinfective 50 mg/day; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilepric; Antileukonychic; Antiobesity 30 mg/day; Antiplaque; Antiprolactin; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl; Antirheumatic; Antispare-Tire 30

mg/day; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man 88 mg/rat/day/15 days; Antiviral?; Astringent; Copper-Antagonist; Deodorant; Hypotensive 30 mg/day; Immunostimulant; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day; Mucogenic; Pesticide; Spermigenic 60 mg/day; Testosteronigenic; Trichomonicide; Vulnerary


ZINGIBERENE Rhizome 750 - 18,000 ppm

          Antirhinoviral; Antiulcer IC54=100 mg/kg; Carminative; Insecticide; Perfumery; Pesticide


ppm = parts per million

tr = trace

Phytochemical Database, USDA - ARS - NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland

Wed May 23 07:47:24 EDT 2001
by Dean Alter
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